As time passes these patients can develop RIHD in the center valves, myocardium, vessels like the aorta, the pericardium, and the coronary arteries. Their threat of death from coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction is definitely increased.’ Professor Lancellotti continuing: ‘Radiotherapy is now given in lower doses but patients are still at increased threat of RIHD, when the heart is in the radiation field particularly. This applies to patients treated for lymphoma, breast cancer and oesophageal cancers. Sufferers who receive radiotherapy for throat cancer tumor are also at risk because lesions can develop on the carotid artery and increase the risk of stroke.’ RIHD is definitely estimated that occurs in 10-30 percent of patients who receive chest radiotherapy within 5-10 years post-treatment.‘What continues to create this project so strong may be the collaboration that brings together Aeras, with deep knowledge in scientific trials, and SSI, which has unparalleled experience as an innovator in the basic sciences in TB vaccinology.’ The Phase I clinical trial of SSI H56:IC31/AERAS-456, in December 2012 concluded, enrolled 25 people. It was the very first time a South African research institute led a first-in-human medical trial. With the next trial, the Phase I/IIa study underway right now, the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative will continue its groundbreaking work. ‘The existing global TB epidemic requires novel techniques, new tools and sufficient resources to reverse what is now a far more challenging and costly disease to control than when the Globe Health Company declared it a global emergency more than 20 years ago,’ said Professor Peter Andersen at SSI.